is supported by our Canadian readers. This means we may earn a commission through products purchased using links on this page. Read more

Electric toothbrushes provide a convenient alternative to manual toothbrushes. They offer superior cleaning power that can blaze through caked-on plaque, leaving your pearly whites fresh and clean. They’re ideal for those with limited mobility, as you don’t need to move the brush in rapid circular motions to achieve a thorough clean.

But while brushing your teeth with an electric toothbrush is easier than with a manual one, choosing the perfect option isn’t always as easy. You need to consider your needs and sensitivity levels to ensure you select a model that matches your needs. After all, we only get one set of adult pearly whites, so caring for them is crucial. We spent countless hours researching the best electric toothbrushes in Canada. Our expert opinions and in-depth evaluation of each product means you’re getting only the best options. Without further ado, let’s get explore our top picks!

The 7 Best Electric Toothbrushes for Canadians in 2024

  • Best Overall: Oral-B Pro Electric Toothbrush
  • Best Budget: Oral-B Pro 300 Sensitive Clean
  • Best Simple Features: Philips Sonicare ProtectiveClean
  • Best High Tech: Oral-B Power iO Series 9
  • Best for Kids: Philips Sonicare for Kids
  • Best for Sensitive Teeth: Oral-B Power iO Series 5
  • Best Splurge: Philips Sonicare DiamondClean

Why Did We Choose These Electric Toothbrushes in Canada?

Each electric toothbrush earned its place on this list for a unique reason, but every model delivered in performance and usability. Here’s a quick overview of why each model made the cut:

The Oral-B Pro Electric Toothbrush is our top pick for electric toothbrushes for Canadians. This toothbrush features a compact, round brush head that can wiggle into the tight spaces around back molars, making it a great choice for those without much space in their mouths.

The Oral-B Pro 300 Sensitive Clean is a worthwhile consideration for Canadians on a budget. It comes at an incredibly affordable price that accommodates most budgets yet has decent features. It’s tailored to sensitive teeth, as it features an ultra-soft bristled brush and sensitive cleaning modes.

The Philips Sonicare ProtectiveClean is our best choice for a simple electric toothbrush in Canada. It supplies excellent features at an affordable price, creating a seamless balance between the two. It also utilizes sonic technology for an even deeper clean.

If you enjoy high-tech features, the Oral-B Power iO Series 9 toothbrush might be the perfect fit for you. It’s packed with fancy features, from a full-colour display to seven cleaning modes to accommodate different sensitivity levels. It even comes with multiple brush heads for a full year of use before needing to buy more brush heads.

The Philips Sonicare for Kids is an excellent choice if you need a toothbrush for kids. This toothbrush is tailored to children’s needs, from the gentler brush setting to the smaller brush head. It even features stickers for kids to customize their toothbrushes.

The Oral-B Power iO Series 5 is a strong contender for Canadians with sensitive gums and teeth. This handy toothbrush comes with three heads, including one designed for gentler care. It also features Sensitive and Super Sensitive cleaning modes, making it perfect for sensitive mouths.

If you don’t mind spending a bit more on your toothbrush, the Philips Sonicare DiamondClean is a great choice. This aesthetically pleasing toothbrush offers a host of smart features, including handy progress reports to help you polish your dental hygiene skills.

Best Electric Toothbrushes in Canada: Quick Menu

Best Overall

Oral-B Pro Electric Toothbrush

Oral-B Pro 1000 Electric Toothbrush, Black, Rechargeable Power Toothbrush with 1 Brush Head

It's Great For:

The Oral-B Pro Electric Toothbrush is our pick for the best electric toothbrush in Canada overall. The brush head is compact and round, delivering ample cleaning power without an oversized shape. It oscillates and pulsates, powering through built-up gunk and cleansing the gum line to keep your sparkly whites in tip-top shape.

It features one mode: Daily Clean. This makes it ideal for Canadians with basic brushing needs, such as those without sensitive teeth who need a simple electric toothbrush to get the job done.

A built-in two-minute timer lets you know when it’s time to stop brushing. The brush pulses every 30 seconds to indicate when it’s time to switch to a different area of the mouth. A pressure sensor stops the pulsation of the brush head if you use too much pressure, ensuring you don’t unintentionally damage your gums.

The package comes with everything you need to get started, including the electric handle, one CrossAction brush head, and one charger. You can swap out the brush head for other options as the need arises, as the brush is compatible with various Oral-B brush heads, including Ortho, Sensitive Clean, and FlossAction.

Key Features

  • Pressure sensor. A built-in pressure sensor causes the vibrations to stop if you use too much pressure. If you have sensitive gums, this feature is essential.
  • Small brush head. A compact brush head makes this toothbrush perfect for Canadians with smaller mouths. You won’t have to struggle to get the right angle to clean your teeth, even if you don’t have much room to work with.
  • Simple operation. A single cleaning mode makes using this toothbrush straightforward, as there are no extra bells and whistles to confuse things.
  • Compatible with multiple heads. Swap out your toothbrush head for other heads that better match your needs, including Sensitive Clean, 3D White, and Precision Clean.

Our Expert’s Take

“The Oral-B Pro Electric Toothbrush is great for sensitive teeth. A ton of great features, including pressure control and compatibility with multiple different heads, makes this toothbrush a great choice for many Canadian households.”

Best Budget

Oral-B Pro 300 Sensitive Clean

Oral B Pro 300 Sensitive Clean Vitality Electric Toothbrush with (1) Brush Head, Rechargeable, White

It's Great For:

The Oral-B 300 Sensitive Clean is an outstanding pick for Canadians on a budget. It comes at an affordable price, making it suitable for those looking for a basic, cost-effective option. It doesn’t have ultra-fancy features or high-end technology, but it does its job well.

This toothbrush is tailored to individuals with sensitive teeth, as it only features one brushing mode: sensitive. The bristles on the brush head are extra soft, ensuring the brush won’t irritate your gums or teeth. This option is an excellent choice if you have sensitive gums or teeth.

A two-minute timer lets you know when it’s time to stop brushing, ensuring you don’t brush too long. The round brush head is small enough to fit in smaller mouths, making it a great choice for kids and adults with less space in their mouths. 

The package comes with everything you need and nothing more: the electric toothbrush, one Sensitive Clean brush head, and one corded electric charger.

Key Features

  • Soft bristles. The brush head features ultra-soft bristles to avoid irritating your gums or teeth. Those with sensitive gums or other dental issues will feel more comfortable using this toothbrush.
  • Complete package. The box comes with everything you need to get started with the toothbrush. You won’t have to pick up any additional accessories before you brush.
  • Budget-friendly. If you’re on a budget, this model is a worthwhile consideration. You won’t have to sacrifice quality for a budget-friendly price.
  • Sensitive cleaning mode. This brush features one cleaning mode tailored to sensitive teeth. With soft bristles and a smaller head overall, you’ll be able to clean even the most sensitive mouths with ease.

Our Expert’s Take

“This budget option uses soft bristles that won’t irritate your teeth and gums. It does a great job at a modest price that won’t break the bank.”

Best Simple Features

Philips Sonicare ProtectiveClean

Philips Sonicare ProtectiveClean 4100 Rechargeable Electric Toothbrush, White, HX6817/01

It's Great For:

The Philips Sonicare ProtectiveClean toothbrush is an excellent choice, offering a blend of features and value and earning its place as our pick for the electric toothbrush with the best simple features. The brush is priced affordably yet has a solid range of features for the best brushing experience.

It uses sonic technology to provide top-tier cleaning. It uses high-speed vibrations to provide up to 31,000 brush strokes per minute. This lets it blaze through plaque by whipping your toothpaste into plaque-fighting froth. It helps work the toothpaste in between your teeth and along your gum line to achieve a thorough clean.

It comes with a single cleaning mode, making it a solid choice for Canadians with basic teeth cleaning needs. It features a pressure sensor that alerts you if you’re pressing too hard, helping to protect your gums and teeth from excessive pressure.

A handy light at the bottom of the toothbrush lets you know when it’s time to switch to a new head by flashing a yellowish-orange light. The battery charge indicator light tells you when the brush is running low on battery.

A Quadpacer and smart timer keep you on track while brushing. The pacer pulses every 30 seconds to indicate its time to move to a different quadrant of your mouth, and the two-minute timer ensures you brush for the perfect amount of time.

The package comes with everything you need to get started, including the electric handle, one Optimal Plaque Control brush head, and a charger.

Key Features

  • Sonic technology. This brush uses sonic technology to deliver impressive cleaning power. It works to remove plaque and food particles, leaving your mouth feeling fresher overall.
  • Pressure sensor. A built-in pressure sensor causes the brush to pulse if you’re using too much pressure. This makes this model an ideal option for those with sensitive teeth.
  • Quadpacer. The brush pulses every 30 seconds and indicates when it’s time to switch to another quadrant of your mouth. You’ll be able to get a great clean without spending too long in one spot.
  • Replacement light. A built-in replacement light lets you know when it’s time to exchange your brush head for a new one. You’ll never have to use a head for longer than it is effective for.

Our Expert’s Take

“If you want a toothbrush that delivers value and features, this model is a great choice. Our researchers enjoyed the Quadpacer and sonic technology for an even better clean.”

Best High Tech

Oral-B Power iO Series 9

Oral-B Power iO Series 9 Electric Toothbrush, Black Onyx, iO9 Rechargeable Power Toothbrush with 4 Brush Heads and Charging Travel Case

It's Great For:

The Oral-B Power iO Series 9 toothbrush is an excellent choice for Canadians seeking a high-tech pick. It comes with a Power2Go charging travel case, allowing you to keep your toothbrush powered up and ready to go when you need it.

It comes with four Oral-B Ultimate Clean replacement brush heads that provide a full year of use before you need to buy more, as you can use each head for three months. A band around the base of the toothbrush head lets you know when you’re applying the perfect amount of pressure by turning green.

Seven cleaning modes allow this toothbrush to accommodate various cleaning needs. The sensitive and Super Sensitive modes are ideal for individuals with sore or sensitive teeth and gums. Other modes, including Daily Clean, Gum Care, Intense, Whiten, and Tongue Clean, provide a well-rounded repertoire for ultimate dental hygiene.

The toothbrush features a colour display between the power and settings buttons that keeps you informed, allowing you to select cleaning modes, check the timer, check the battery life, and determine when to change the brush head.

The toothbrush is Bluetooth compatible with an app that provides AI 3D tooth tracking to map the surface of each tooth and ensure a thorough cleaning.

Key Features

  • AI 3D mapping. Never miss a tooth with this toothbrush’s tracking technology. It creates a map of your mouth to ensure that you are getting the best clean possible.
  • Charging travel case. The travel case for this electric toothbrush can be charged before your trip, so you can charge it back up while you’re on the go.
  • Included replacement heads. Three extra replacement heads provide a full year of usage before you need to purchase more brush heads.
  • Colour display. A colour display supplies vital information, including the battery level, cleaning mode, and time left for brushing. The smart display tells you everything you need to know to get the most out of your toothbrush.

Our Expert’s Take

“Canadians who want a high-tech toothbrush will love this option. The AI 3D mapping helps you keep all of your teeth clean with ease.”

Best for Kids

Philips Sonicare for Kids

Philips Sonicare for Kids Design-A-Pet Rechargeable Electric Toothbrush, HX3601/01

It's Great For:

The Philips Sonicare for Kids is a great toothbrush for Canadian families with kids. This toothbrush is specifically tailored to children, featuring a kid-friendly design and features to match. It comes in white and teal, complete with included Pet Edition stickers to allow children to personalize their toothbrushes.

It utilizes a gentle pulsing action to help reach deep between the teeth and along the gum line to promote cleaner teeth. A rubberized brush head makes for a more comfortable experience, making it a strong choice for those with sensitive mouths.

The brush features two settings: Gentle and Extra Gentle. These softer settings are perfect for kids who are still learning the ropes of using an electric toothbrush, as they’re gentle enough not to hurt their hums or teeth. These settings also make this brush a good option for Canadian adults with sensitive teeth and gums.

The toothbrush also comes with access to the free Sonicare for Kids app, which supports kids as they focus on brushing twice daily.

Key Features

  • Multiple cleaning modes. Two gentle cleaning modes provide the perfect settings for children learning to use an electric toothbrush.
  • Complete package. This toothbrush comes with everything you need, including your charger, brush heads, and personalization stickers for kids.
  • Pulsing technology. The toothbrush uses gentle pulsing to reach between the teeth and clean along the gum line. This is essential for children who may not have mastered flossing yet.
  • Timer. A two-minute timer keeps kids on track, helping to ensure that their teeth are properly brushed each time they reach for the toothbrush.

Our Expert’s Take

“If you’re seeking the perfect toothbrush for kids, look no further. Canadians will enjoy the gentle settings and the rubberized head for more comfortable cleaning.”

Best for Sensitive Teeth

Oral-B Power iO Series 5

Oral-B Power iO Series 5 Limited Electric Toothbrush, Black, iO5 Rechargeable Power Toothbrush with 3 Brush Heads, Travel Case and Refill Holder

It's Great For:

The Oral-B iO Series 5 toothbrush is a great choice for Canadians with sensitive teeth. It has five smart brushing modes, including Sensitive and Super Sensitive, making it a perfect choice for Canadians needing gentler toothbrushes. However, it can also ramp up for deeper cleans, as it offers Whiten, Daily Clean, and Intense settings.

The brush comes with three heads, allowing you to get through nine months before needing to buy a new brush head. One of the heads is designed for Gentle Care, making it a perfect option for sensitive teeth. The other two heads, Ultimate Clean and Ultimate White offer unique cleaning capabilities.

This brush features a pressure sensor to help protect your gums. A red light indicates you’re pressing too hard, a white light indicates insufficient pressure, and green is just right. A built-in two-minute timer keeps you right on track.

The brush is Bluetooth enabled and compatible with the Oral-B app, which offers AI brush tracking to provide real-time coaching for an ultra-clean result. The round head provides a gentle clean while powering through buildup but is small enough to accommodate smaller mouths.

Key Features

  • AI Brush Tracking. The brush is Bloothtooth compatible and maps out your mouth, ensuring that you’ll never miss a tooth if you keep track of the tracking modes.
  • Five brushing modes. Multiple brushing modes accommodate different tooth and gum sensitivity levels. You can choose the one that works best for you without purchasing a new toothbrush.
  • Two-minute timer. A built-in timer ensures you brush your teeth for the perfect amount of time. If you struggle to brush effectively, this timer is perfect for you.
  • Pressure sensor. The pressure sensor light indicates if you are pushing hard enough, or if you need to add more pressure to get the perfect clean.

Our Expert’s Take

“If you have sensitive teeth, it can be difficult to find an electric toothbrush that works. This option has a gentle head and tons of settings for sensitive Canadians.”

Best Splurge

Philips Sonicare DiamondClean

Philips Sonicare Diamondclean 9000 Special Edition Rechargeable Toothbrush, Blue/black Hx9911/92

It's Great For:

The Philips Sonicare DiamondClean is a phenomenal choice for Canadians who want a smart toothbrush. This model comes with Bluetooth compatibility that enables it to track your brushing habits and deliver progress reports. If you’re unsure how well you’re brushing or want to track your progress, this model is an excellent choice.

The progress reports supply guidance to improve brushing habits and the essential information to keep you in the loop, including pressure, the number of times you brush your teeth, and more.

It comes with four cleaning modes for a personalized experience, including Clean, White+, Gum Health, and Deepclean+. Three intensities let you adjust based on your gum and tooth sensitivity level. The combination creates a total of 12 customizable settings to better accommodate your unique dental hygiene needs.

The brush itself features a sleek, aesthetically pleasing design with a rich blue fading into midnight black, creating an ombre effect on the brush. It comes with an elegant travel case for convenient portability.

Key Features

  • Modern appearance. A beautiful gradient design and sleek black carrying case create a minimalistic, stylish appearance.
  • Multiple cleaning modes. Four cleaning modes and three intensity settings allow you to adjust it based on your gum and tooth sensitivity levels.
  • Progress reports. Progress reports from this toothbrush rate your brushing, so you never have to worry if you are doing it wrong again.
  • Pressure sensor. A pressure sensor lets you know if you’re brushing too hard, helping you brush more effectively overall.

Our Expert’s Take

“The unique, beautiful design of this electric toothbrush is extremely effective. It has four cleaning modes for all of your different teeth cleaning modes.”

Comparing the Best Electric Toothbrushes for Canadians

CategoryToothbrushColourExtra HeadsPower TypeCleaning Modes
Best OverallOral-B Pro Electric ToothbrushBlackNoCorded ElectricNo
Best BudgetOral-B Pro 300 Sensitive CleanWhiteNoCorded ElectricNo
Best Simple FeaturesPhilips Sonicare ProtectiveCleanWhiteNoCorded ElectricNo
Best High TechOral-B Power iO Series 9BlackYesCorded ElectricYes
Best for KidsPhilips Sonicare for KidsWhite/TealNoUSB ChargerYes
Best for Sensitive TeethOral-B Power iO Series 5BlackYesCorded ElectricYes
Best SplurgePhilips Sonicare DiamondCleanBlue/BlackNoCorded ElectricYes

How We Selected the Best Electric Toothbrushes in Canada

Finding the best electric toothbrushes isn’t easy. It requires careful consideration and thorough evaluation of unique dental hygiene needs to ensure there’s something for everyone. But, lucky for you, we happily took this project on.

We sifted through dozens of electric toothbrushes in Canada to isolate the best of the best. But why should you trust us? It comes down to our dedication to thorough research and evaluation, plus our experience in all things home-related.

We’ve done the grunt work for rounding up the best products in various categories, from the best smoothie blenders to the best water flossers. In our quest to isolate these products, we start with a general roundup to gather the highest-rated models.

As we searched for the best electric toothbrushes in Canada, we looked for a few key factors, including the following:

  • Brush head size: Some Canadians prefer larger brush heads to cover more surface area, while others have smaller mouths and require compact brush heads. We included a few options to accommodate both ends of the spectrum.
  • Cleaning modes: Using an electric toothbrush can be tricky with sensitive teeth and gums, but with multiple cleaning modes, it’s more comfortable than ever. We looked for models with several cleaning modes, including Sensitive, to ensure there’s something for everyone.
  • Pressure sensor: A pressure sensor can be a handy addition for Canadians that aren’t sure how much pressure to use while brushing. A handful of models on this list feature pressure sensors for guided assistance.
  • Timers: It can be hard to tell how long you’ve been brushing your teeth without watching the clock, but there’s no guesswork involved with a timer. We looked for this handy feature as we sifted through options to promote ultimate convenience.

Factors to Look For in an Electric Toothbrush in Canada

Factors to Look For in an Electric Toothbrush in Canada

Choosing an electric toothbrush for your needs isn’t always a grab ‘n’ go type of thing. Instead, it can be somewhat of a process, requiring consideration to ensure you select the right fit. Here are a couple of factors to look for as you shop for the best electric toothbrushes in Canada.


A built-in timer is a handy feature in an electric toothbrush. Many electric toothbrushes have built-in two-minute timers, but not all of them do. If you regularly get distracted when you brush your teeth, the timer is a handy tool, as it prevents you from brushing your teeth for too long.

It’s also nice to know that you’ve brushed your teeth long enough, too, as this helps ensure a better, more consistent clean. And since you only get one set of adult pearly whites, it’s best to take care of them!

Cleaning Modes

Many electric toothbrushes come with at least two cleaning modes, such as Clean, White, or Sensitive. Some models come with a wider range of options, although they vary based on the model you choose.

If you plan to share the same toothbrush base among family members with different tooth and gum sensitivity levels, the variability in cleaning modes is handy. That way, you can simply pop the brush head off the base and swap heads for the next person, adjusting the brush mode as you go.

Varying cleaning modes are particularly beneficial for those with highly sensitive teeth and gums, as these individuals may find regular clean modes too strong to be comfortable. If you have ultra-sensitive teeth and gums, look for a toothbrush with a Sensitive setting.

Pressure Sensor

Applying enough pressure is crucial to thoroughly clean your teeth, but applying too much pressure can damage your gums. Finding this balance can sometimes be tricky, leaving you with sensitive, sore gums as you try to find the perfect pressure level.

Maintaining that perfect pressure level can be a hassle, as it can be tricky to apply even pressure as you move from your front teeth to the back molars. This is where a pressure sensor comes in handy.

Some electric toothbrushes feature a pressure sensor that notifies you when you apply too much pressure to your teeth, effectively preventing you from damaging your gums. If you struggle to maintain an even temperature while brushing, consider an electric toothbrush with a pressure sensor.


There are two primary types of toothbrushes: rotating and vibrating. Electric rotating toothbrushes, also known as rotating-oscillating toothbrushes, feature a rotating brush head. They move in a circular motion, blazing through plaque buildup on your teeth.

The second type is sonic, or vibrating, toothbrushes. These models don’t feature a rotating head – instead, they use vibrations to achieve a sparkling clean result. Some people may find these models better suited to sensitive teeth, as the bristles don’t rotate as you brush.

Charging Method

Pay attention to the type of charging method each toothbrush utilizes. Some models use inductive charging, requiring you to place the toothbrush in a special cradle to restore its battery. Other models feature a standard USB port that works with any regular USB cable.

If you don’t want the hassle of carrying an inductive charging cable setup while travelling, a USB-based model might be the better option. However, if you don’t travel frequently or don’t mind carting the inductive charging setup with you, either model will work.


If you travel frequently, look for a model that offers convenient portability. Some models come with a sleek carrying case for easy transportation when you’re travelling. The travel case eliminates the need to carry the toothbrush in a plastic baggie when you’re travelling, which is handy.

Size and Type of Brush Head

The size and type of brush head add to the list of essential considerations. You should choose an option that best matches your needs to ensure optimal comfortability, as some brush heads might not work for certain people.

For example, if you want to cover more surface area in a shorter time, you might find that the rectangular brush heads best match your needs. However, these brush heads can be awkwardly large for people with smaller mouths, making for an uncomfortable brushing experience.

If you have a smaller mouth, you might find that a circular brush head better matches your needs. These heads are usually considerably smaller than their rectangular counterparts, making them a more comfortable alternative for individuals with limited space in their mouths.

Most electric toothbrush heads are removable, allowing you to change them every three months.

Bristle Stiffness

The bristle stiffness ties into comfortability and sensitivity. Choose a brush head with softer bristles if you have sensitive teeth and gums. These bristles are less abrasive, alleviating discomfort for people with sensitive gums and teeth.

Conversely, choose a brush head with stiffer bristles if you don’t have sensitive teeth and gums or prefer stiffer bristles. These models tend to be more abrasive than their softer bristle counterparts, so they’re best suited to people with non-sensitive gums and teeth. They do a great job at powering through caked-on plaque and gunk, but they can be hard on sensitive mouths.

Frequently Asked Questions

Many dentists recommend their patients use electric toothbrushes, as some individuals may struggle to achieve a thorough clean with a manual brush. Electric toothbrushes with vibrating or rotating heads can work toothpaste into hard-to-reach areas often missed during manual brushing. Since these areas are often most prone to cavities, electric toothbrushes take an edge over manual ones.

Electric toothbrushes can be an excellent option for those with limited mobility, particularly of the wrists and hands. Since manual brushing requires ample mobility in the wrists and hands to ensure you thoroughly clean all your teeth, those with limited mobility may struggle to achieve a thorough clean.

Electric toothbrushes don’t require as much wrist or hand mobility, making them a better choice in this situation.

Canadians with small children may struggle with finding a perfect toothbrush that is best suited for their kids. The Philips Sonicare for Kids is a great choice for any user who is seeking a smaller-size electric toothbrush with great features catered to a kid. This toothbrush has multiple settings, a fun-to-use app and stickers to decorate the toothbrush.

Like your regular toothbrush, the head on your electric toothbrush needs to tap out at some point. Most dentists recommend switching the head every three months to ensure the toothbrush remains in good condition and to prevent bacteria from building up in the bristles. All of the toothbrushes in our review today have the option to switch to new brush heads when they start to wear out, and some even have a light to let you know when it is time to swap.

Some electric toothbrushes come with a standard medium bristle head, and others come with multiple options included or available to buy separately. Choosing a brush head for your electric toothbrush is a personal choice; some prefer a harder brush, and others like a gentle touch. Those with oral issues may require a soft brush head in order to let healing in their mouth occur.

An electric toothbrush can cost anywhere from $40 to $300 or more. The exact cost of an electric toothbrush hinges on several factors, including the brand, features, and model. Models with fancy, high-tech features usually cost more, whereas simpler models with the basics are generally more affordable.

Remember, you don’t have to spend hundreds of dollars on an electric toothbrush to get a good-quality option. Some excellent models are priced much more affordably than a several-hundred-dollar price tag.

The electric toothbrushes in our list all need to charge and have a base that they sit on to recharge. These bases are powered either by a standard plug and electricity or a USB charger option. Some other electric toothbrushes on the market can be battery-operated as well. Once an electric toothbrush is charged, it can last for some time, so the base does not always need to be plugged in to operate.